I love Marines. They are America’s Spartan warriors. They are always ready to do battle. They are closet idealists and pessimists.
Marines have an intense feeling of identity. They have almost a mystical connection of belonging to an elite fighting force of nearly invincible warriors.
Some of this attitude comes from their brutal and efficient training. Another part of that comes from their deep confidence and pride in their mission and leaders.
There is no better friend and no worse enemy than a U.S. Marine.
Who are the Marines?
The United States Marine Corps is an all-purpose military strike force that can mobilize quickly and fight anywhere. Marines can be deployed almost anywhere in the world at a moment’s notice. The Marine Corps protect United States interests whenever a crisis flares up.
The Marine Corps is part of the Department of the Navy, but the Marines are still considered a separate branch of the armed services. The Marine Corps is the smallest branch of the armed forces. As of 2017, the Corps has around 185,000 active duty members and additional 38,500 reserve Marines.
What is the Marine Corps history?
The United States Marine Corps was created by the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, during the Revolutionary War. America Marines first served on Continental Navy ships to protect them. The Marines also used amphibious assaults to attack ground targets, enemy ports, bases, and cities from the sea.
From 1800 to 1934, the Marine Corps landed 187 times in 37 countries “to suppress lawlessness or insurrection.” Marines saw constant action in countries as close as Latin America and as far away as the shore of Libya in Tripoli, as the “Marines’ Hymn” from the Marine Corps Hymn.
Throughout American history, the Marines have been American presidents’ force of choice when they send troops to fight in faraway lands. In 1805, the Marines fought Islamic Barbary pirates and captured the North African city of Derna, Tripoli in present-day Libya. In 1847, during the Mexican-American War, Marines were the first troops to storm and enter Mexico City, the enemy’s capital.
Throughout the 20th century, Marines have fought small wars in colonies or third-world countries: Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, the Philippines, the Dominican Republic and Honduras. The Marine Corps had a long tradition of fighting small wars.
In World War I, the Marines earned their tough reputation in several battles like Belleau Wood in France. During World War II, the Marines spearheaded a series of amphibious assaults in the Pacific. The Devil Dogs defeated the Japanese in legendary battles such as Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. In Korea, the Marines froze in the bitter battle of the Chosin Reservoir. In Vietnam, the Marines fought through the siege of Khe Sanh, the worst battle of the war.
In the 21st century, the Marine Corps has been deployed multiple times to Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2004, the Marines fought two fierce battles against insurgents in Fallujah, Iraq. In 2010, the Marines fought in the campaign of Marjah, Afghanistan to re-take Helmand Province from the Taliban.
What is Marines boot camp like?
Marines undergo 13 weeks of intense training at boot camp at recruit depots in San Diego, California or Parris Island, South Carolina. Recruits are transformed into Marines by becoming physically fit, receiving first-class combat training, and learn how to respond instantly to orders. They hone their bodies and their minds by learning highly valuable leadership skills.
The Marine Corps places great importance on infantry combat. One of the Corps’ important mottos is “Every Marine a rifleman.” All Marines, no matter what their job is, are well-trained soldiers in combat skills and specialize in shooting rifles and other weapons.
Today, the standard rifle of the Marine Corps is the M16A4 assault rifle and M4A1 carbine, a compact version of the M16 rifle. Marines are also well-trained in the use of the M9 pistol, M203 grenade launcher, M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW), M240B light machine gun and the M2 .50-caliber heavy machine gun.
How do Marines fight?
Marines specialize in amphibious assaults, attacking land targets from the sea. The U.S. Navy transports the Marines to get them close to combat zones. Then the Marines can attack their objectives by using amphibious assault vehicles and support aircraft.
The Marines have a variety of vehicles that they use to fight. The Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV)-7 is a tracked, lightly armored vehicle. The AAV-7 can travel through water and on land. The AAV-7 can transport 21 combat-equipped Marines or 10,000 pounds of cargo.
The Marines use a version of the U.S. Army’s M1 Abrams main battle tank. The M1 weighs 70 tons and fires a 120mm smoothbore cannon that can destroy most enemy vehicles.
The Marines get dropped into combat zones by several aircraft. Marines use the CH-46 Sea Knight and the MV-22 Osprey, a plane that has propellers that rotate like helicopters so it can hover.
What other missions does the Marine Corps have?
In addition to combat duties, the United States Marines Corps has the honor of standing guard at the White House and Camp David. Marines also operate Marine One, the helicopter that transports the President of the United States. Also, the Marine Embassy Security Command protects U.S. embassies and consulates in more than 140 foreign posts around the world.
What is the future of the Marine Corps?
The Marines are a quick-strike force that can fight anywhere. They are America’s Spartan Warriors capable of doing the hard work of protecting American citizens and interests around the world. With the best-trained infantry riflemen and technology available, the Marine Corps is prepared for whatever the future holds.
Each year on November 11, Americans march in parades, veterans put on their old uniforms and bands play patriotic songs. U.S. flags wave from homes, buildings and are carried in ceremonies. What is everyone celebrating?
Americans celebrate Veterans Day to honor the men and women who keep America safe and free. We acknowledge the sacrifice of veterans who protected people and places important to the United States around the world.
Veterans come from all branches of services including the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard. Those serving are called service members. They protect American interests in the land, sea, and air. Their jobs can be dangerous, and they fight in wars. Other times, they help people in trouble. Sometimes they get hurt or killed doing their job.
Often their duties keep service members away from home for a long time. They give up their lives so the majority of Americans can live in peace. Veterans Day is a simple thank you to the men and women who gave up so much to help and protect us.
Why celebrate Veterans Day on November 11?
The idea for Veterans Day goes back to World War I (WW I). The Industrial Revolution would change warfare in WW I. Death caused killing on a massive scale- tens of thousands of men were killed in a single day.
WW I started in 1914. The United States entered the war in 1917. Almost 5 million Americans fought in the war. About 116,000 Americans died. The worldwide casualties were nearly 9.7 million dead and 21 million wounded. On November 11, 1918, the long, terrible war ended at eleven o’clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of the year- 11/11/1918.
The end of the fighting was called an armistice. People all over the world poured into the streets. Stores closed, whistles blew, and strangers danced and hugged to have peace at last.
A year later, President Woodrow Wilson asked American to remember the armistice for one day. November 11 was named Armistice Day. At eleven o’clock people stood silently for two minutes. Staying silent was their way to give thanks for peace. The quiet time gave them a chance to thank the veterans who helped win the peace.
In 1920, Britain and France each buried a soldier in a special place of honor. Nobody knew who the soldiers were. The unknown soldiers stood for all those who had died in the war. The British soldier was buried with past kings and queens. At sundown, French soldiers lit a flame over their soldier’s grave. This gave the Americans an idea of an unknown U.S. soldier monument.
In 1921, an unknown soldier was placed in a tomb, a building that is the last resting place for the dead. The monument is at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was shut at eleven o’clock on November 11. Flags were flown halfway down flagpoles to show respect.
In 1938, the America’s lawmakers voted to make November 11 a national holiday that would give Americans a time to think about and thank veterans. The holiday was called Armistice Day. It was a day to celebrate world peace.
Soon it became a tradition for the President of the United States to place a wreath of flowers on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers. The flowers came from all over the country. Soldiers standing guard shot their rifles into the air in salute. A bugler played Taps, a haunting song to honor the dead.
Three years later America entered World War II. More than 16 million brave service members volunteered to fight. More than 416,800 Americans died in the war.
In 1954, lawmakers voted again to change the name from Armistice Day to Veterans Day. Two more soldiers were buried in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, representing the fallen soldiers of World War II and the Korean War. The tomb was renamed the Tomb of the Unknowns.
Honoring veterans became a sacred tradition in America. Post offices sold stamps with heroic images, and lawmakers built statues and memorials to honor veterans from different wars.
In 1984, an unknown soldier who died in the Vietnam War was placed in the Tomb of the Unknowns. Now there are four soldiers from four different wars. Guards keep watch on the tomb around the clock, 365 days a year. This neverending watch honors all Americans who gave their lives in battle.
Other countries find other ways to celebrate. Most of their holidays take place on November 11, just like the United States. Britain, Canada, and Australia call their holiday Remembrance Day. They wear red poppy flowers to think of veterans from World War I who died in the poppy fields of France.
In the United States, Veterans Day is a special day. It is a time to tell the millions of women and men in our armed forces both past and present their work for peace is essential. Veterans use the day to think about their service. Americans everywhere thank veterans for their sacrifice on Veterans Day.
“In those days we did not trust anyone who had not been in the war, but we did not completely trust anyone.”
– Ernest Hemingway, A Moveable Feast
The term “The Lost Generation” was used to describe a group of literary figures of the 1920’s living in Paris. It was used to describe writers who came of age after World War I and before for the Great Depression.
Hemingway made the term popular in his novel, “The Sun Also Rises.” Gertrude Stein gave him the term when describing the displaced generation of World War I veterans who lost their innocence in the war. She acted as a literary godmother to many of the writers of this generation.
The group rejected the post-World War I values of America. They believed due to the carnage of World War I there was a loss of morals. The phrase “do good unto others and have good done unto you” was no longer true. The idea of hope was lost.
World War I
The Industrial Revolution would change warfare in World War I (WWI). Death was caused killing on a massive scale- tens of thousands of men killed in a single day.
At the Battle of the Somme, one of the largest of the war, 1 July and 18 November 1916 more than a million men were wounded or killed. J.R.R. Tolkien was wounded in this battle, and it greatly influenced his writing of the “The Lord of the Rings.” Nothing like this killing was seen on this scale before.
On the first morning of the battle, more than 20,000 British Soldiers were killed, and 37,000 were wounded. In the end, it gained the allies only 8 miles of land.
Battle of the Somme
There was a thought at the start of the industrial age that machines should serve humanity. The idea of machines to slaughter people was never possible before. Tanks, gas, submarines, planes, machine guns- overwhelming massacre of humanity by the very machines that would be used to serve it.
WWI was a turning point in history because technology was used for mass violence on an almost industrial scale. Many veterans, including Hemingway, Tolkien, Fitzgerald and C.S. Lewis were changed forever by the violence of what they saw.
Hemingway said, “If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man, then wherever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you, for Paris is a moveable feast.”
The artistic energy in Paris in the1920’s was immemorial for its time and unsurpassed in its creativity. The decade exploded with life full of experimentation and promise.
Genius thrived, classics were created, and careers were made. The men and women who made this possible left their nation behind. Yet, in their writing captured its spirits. In self-imposed exile, they wrote some of the most acclaimed and influential literature of all time.
Poets and writers worked to recreate the literary form. Hemingway worked to create a single, simple style of prose. This is how it began.
Before World War I
On the eve WWI, American students immersed themselves in the works of European literature. All of them were descended from the “old country.” They hoped to discover their own artistic voice.
Young American writers found little in their homeland to influence their writing. They read about epic events in the books of the French writer Émile Zola and Russian writer Leonard Tolstoy.
They were educated in the values of old-world Europe. They learned from European books the ideals of courage, valor, and hope. As WWI started and got worse, they felt compelled to save that culture. The culture of their fathers and grandfathers.
The Ambulance Service
Archibald MacLeish was an American poet, writer, and future Librarian of the US Congress. He joined the ambulance service in France. A fresh out of high school Hemingway followed to escape his Midwest upbringing.
The Red Cross Ambulance service in France and Italy almost served as a college extension courses for romantic Americans wanted to take part in the great adventure. The ambulance service gave them great food, congenial experiences, furloughs to Paris and uniforms to meet girls.
John Dos Passos went to the famed prep school, Choate Rosemary Hall. After graduating from Harvard University in 1916, he served as an ambulance driver in the war.
As a modernist writer, and most overlooked, he became connected with the Lost Generation. He was drinking buddies with F. Scott Fitzgerald. His Harvard classmate was E. E. Cummings. He was a longtime friend of Ernest Hemingway.
It was on Dos Passos recommendation that Hemingway would move to Key West, FL.
The Aftermath of War
Europe was lost in the carnage of WWI and destroyed. Amid the destruction of Victorian Europe, Dos Passos and the other writers developed left-leaning politics that left them against war and in support of workers’ rights.
As ambulance drivers, these young Americans saw war at its worst. They served in the trenches, they saw disfigured soldiers, and watched the flower of European society die in mass slaughter.
Dos Passos was at the battle of Verdun. MacLeish lost his brother. Three months after the war he found him lying in a ditch in Belgium in his full uniform. It destroyed him.
These aspiring poets and writers watched the destruction of their beloved Europe. Gone was the world they had read about. In 1919 they returned home.
America came into the war only in the last 18 months. Over 100,000 Americans were killed and twice that number wounded. But due to America’s geographical isolation and rich mineral resources, the country prospered while Europe was in shambles.
The casualties for the British was 900,000 killed and more than 2 million wounded. France lost 1.3 million men and 4 million wounded. Germany had similar numbers with double wounded. America had largely been untouched by the war.
We start to see the first glimpse of the superpower that America would become. America refused to join the League of Nations.
While they had been gone, the country had changed. The Industrial Revolution is in full swing in American, and the idea of Prohibition starts. The stock market was booming. A time similar to the 1990’s and early 2000’s.
Many American veterans felt they had sacrificed for nothing. The American WWI vets felt disenchanted. Their values changed by their experience. They felt lost in a haze of aimlessness.
They felt that no one understood what they had experienced. No one knew who they were. This is decades before we understood such psychological trauma. Many of them had several jobs and felt restless.
The Return to Paris
Writing was a time-honored impossibility in America. Very few writers managed to make a living enough to support their families. Rumors of cheap living overseas got back to the veterans because Europe was in shambles. The American dollar was very strong due to the booming US economy.
Graduates of Ivy League schools were once again influenced by the books they had read in college. The chance to return to Paris and to experience the stuff they had read about was too much of a temptation to resist.
Many of the WWI vets had fond memories of Paris from the war. The first writers of the Lost Generation went forward to their future in Paris.
The Changing Values
After the destruction of Europe, there was a relief of being alive. Everyone wanted to celebrate. It was the reverse of survival guilt- it was a Survivor Celebration.
The American writers walked into a city that had a wild desire to dance, drink, to squander what little they had and to have sex. A gasp of relief to feast on life.
All the rules were broken both social and taboo. It was an atmosphere where anything went. There was no judgment because there was a sense of doom because they all realized life is short. It was an environment of changing ideas.
Gertrude Stein and Sylvia Beach
Picasso was redefining art. Gertrude Stein was reimaging prose. French saloons are the central point of conversation and gossip in Franco society.
Stein’s saloon at Rue des Fleurs was constantly busy with people coming and going. It was a mandatory stop for culture and talks of avant-garde art.
Stein with her life partner Alice Toklas loved to entertain. Her guest list reads like a who’s who of literary and art greatness in the early 20th century.
Pablo Picasso was a central character early on in Stein’s saloon. His Cubism would go on influence an entire generation of painters. He painted a famous portrait of Stein.
Sylvia Beach’s bookstore “Shakespeare and Company” was a literary crossroads. A Princeton grad in WWI she had been a nurse. She had a soft spot for WWI veterans.
Her store was a central hub for the growing number of returning veterans. They used her store mail, money, and inspiration.
The Seine River divides Paris into two parts- the left bank and the right bank. May of the lost generation artists were drawn to the left bank of the Seine in Paris due to the cheap apartments and cafes. The right bank was the decadent part of the city where all the hotels were.
As they arrived many of the writers began to write. MacLeish observed that the youth of Europe had been slaughtered. Paris was the reaction to this carnage.
Death of a generation implied the death of tradition. It was the start of the Modernist movement. Modernism is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional styles of poetry and art. Modernist writers experimented with literary form and expression, adhering to Ezra Pound’s maxim to “Make it new.”
Liberated from the tradition artists and writers in Paris sought to make art new. They weren’t sure how to do it. Ezra Pound was a poet of immense talent. He translated French, Chinese and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics into modern prose.
A restless and energetic man he edited T.S. Eliot’s “The Wasteland” into a tight, sharp poem. The haunting poem invokes images of a generation living in the aftermath of war.
The poem was the first successful product of a Midwestern American living in Paris in the 1920’s. It would not be the last.
Learning the Craft
James Joyce was an Irishman living in Paris. His book “Ulysses” was published by Sylvia Beach on February 1922, in Paris. It is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature.
Ulysses’ stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose changed the writers thought of the craft. The book is full of puns, parodies, and allusions, as well as its rich characterizations. It is a funny story the chronicles the appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904.
The book is a highly regarded novel. It is no small fact that the book changed the course of modern fiction. Hemingway arrived in Paris in 1921. He immediately starts honing his writing talent. He borrowed books from Shakespeare and Company.
He read D.H. Lawrence. Lawrence was an English novelist and playwright who wrote about emotional health, vitality, spontaneity, and instinct. His work represents an extended reflection upon the dehumanizing effects of modernity. He loved the themes running through the work.
He read the titans of the Russian literary canon, such as Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and Chekhov. He felt changed and moved by his experiences.
Under Pound, he found an editor and publisher. He learned to distrust adjectives and to tell a tight story with short, simple sentences. In return, Hemingway taught Pound how to box.
Partying Like Rock Stars
Stein acted as a mentor to Hemingway. She told him a writer see things while a reporter merely sees words.
Stein could not understand the excess of the young writers. She thought that between the ages of 18 to 25 a person becomes civilized. Men who went to war at that age could not be civilized. She continued to play host and teacher in her saloon.
Paris cafés were well lit. You could stay there all day as long as you ordered coffee. Due to the shattered French economy, foreigners were forbidden to take jobs. They milled around sharing ideas.
The Lost Generation drank in excess. They didn’t go home to eat or sleep. They went from café to café to live public lives. Prohibition had started in America.
The two favorite bars frequented by the expatriate Americans was “The Dingo” and “The Jockey.”
MacLeish became acquainted with the silence his poetry required. He spent days in the Paris library reading everything he could. Pound’s advice to his friend was to read and to get to the European classics inside and out.
All of them felt if they immersed themselves in ancient literature while living this extravagant lifestyle they felt they could somewhere with it. Another poet who followed this advice was E.E. Cummings.
In 1917, with the First World War ongoing in Europe, Cummings enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps, along with his college friend John Dos Passos.
Due to an administrative mix-up, Cummings was not assigned to an ambulance unit for five weeks, during which time he stayed in Paris. He fell in love with the city, to which he would return throughout his life.
Cummings returned to Paris in 1921 and remained there for two years before returning to New York. His body of work encompasses approximately 2,900 poems, two autobiographical novels, four plays and several essays. He was an artist with numerous drawings and paintings.
Cummings is remembered as an eminent voice of 20th century English literature.
John Dos Passos traveled all over Europe and Asia using Paris as a stopover to rest and plan. He captured all of it in his novel “Manhattan Transfer.” It was all about the tactile experience that could be used to fuel writing.
American writers living in Paris were writing about their native land. Paris allowed for a deepening of their ideas. It strengthened their concept of what they were doing and what they wanted.
In time they become a collective grouping of the way forward for writing. Even as their writing became more widely read they were not popular with big publishing companies. The long-established publishers saw them as brash and arrogant.
As in James Joyce’s “Ulysses,” small presses allowed a lot of younger writers to get the word out. The best part was with no censorship.
Hemingway’s first set of short stories was published this way. America immediately took notice of the lean, muscular prose and vernacular writing filled dialogue. It was F. Scott Fitzgerald, who introduced Hemingway to Scribner and Sons publishing.
Scott had already published “This Side of Paradise.” The novel turned the Princeton grad into the chronicler of the Jazz Age. He was an overnight American success story. Along with his wife Zelda, he embodied the excess of the Jazz Age.
Upon arriving in Paris as a successful writer had the opposite effect. He was not seen as a serious writer because he had not suffered for his art. Being poor and scrounging had a certain nobility to it.
Scott was more Right Bank Paris. A place filled with deluxe hotels and gold, white lobbies. This is the image of all that was wrong with America for the Left Bank writers.
Hemingway was the darling of the Left Bank. The real difference between Fitzgerald and Hemingway was the discipline they brought to writing.
South of France
Fitzgerald went to the South of France to finish his book, “The Great Gatsby.” Here he met Sara Murphy. She had dated Picasso and was now married to Gerald Murphy.
Gerald and Sara were wealthy, expatriate Americans who moved to the French Riviera in the early 20th century. With their generous hospitality, they threw legendary parties.
They created a vibrant social circle that included a great number of artists and writers of the Lost Generation. They made an art out of eating and drinking.
For Scott and Zelda to in the orbit of Gerald and Sara was an exciting thing. This experience would become the basis for “The Great Gatsby.”
Learning a Craft
Hemingway would agonize over his manuscripts. He would make corrections and scribble things out and rewrite. Over and over until he got it just right with the right words.
Hemingway felt that writing was something to be done to perfection. Hemingway felt that writers like Fitzgerald, who changed their writing for slick magazines like Esquire hoarded their talent. Too much could destroy the talent of the telling the truth.
When Hemingway read a rough draft of the “The Great Gatsby” he knew it was a masterpiece.
Hemingway went to Pamplona, Spain for the bullfights. It gave him the material for “The Sun Also Rises.”
His landmark novel of wild years spent in Paris and Spain popularized the expression of “The Lost Generation.” In the work, there are clear, sad overtones of an unhappy ending.
In The End
The phrase along with Hemingway’s book depicted this generation as characterized by doomed youth, hedonism, and uncompromising creativity. The wounding of their generation, both literally and metaphorically, by the experience of war.
To varying degrees, these virtues and vices were to be found in the life-story of nearly every member of the Lost Generation. It was their way of finding sanity in a world gone mad.
Aside from their wild lifestyles, though, what is most striking is the astonishing range, depth, and the influence of the work produced by this community of American expatriates in Paris.
This outburst of creativity was supported by an explosion of small-scale entrepreneurialism in the creative arts. Much of the literature produced by the American Modernists was published by small presses, also run by expatriates, including Shakespeare & Company, Contact Editions, Black Sun Press, Three Mountains Press, Plain Editions, and Obelisk Press.
A list of the canonical works of inter-war American literature produced in Paris, following the landmark publication of Joyce’s Ulysses by Shakespeare & Co. provides a key to the literary future of the United States.
Fitzgerald described the generation as finding, “All Gods dead, all wars fought, all faith in man shaken.”
I believe we have stumbled on such a unique in time again in the here and now. The new “Lost Generation” are the two million American men and women who have fought for the last decade-plus in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Winston Churchill said, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” Churchill was referring to the ongoing efforts of the Royal Air Force pilots fighting the Battle of Britain. This pivotal air battle was with the German Luftwaffe with Britain expecting a German invasion.
But the same can be said of the many young Americans who have fought this same war in continuous back-to-back tours. Along the way losing loved ones both “over there” and “back home.” The excess of the “The Lost Generation” can be seen in today’s veterans.
Hemingway’s life was soon to change with the assassination of an Archduke across the Atlantic. In 1917, the fervor of war called to America’s youth and Hemingway was no exception. The United States Army rejected Hemingway for defective vision. He volunteered for the Red Cross Ambulance Division in Italy.
Ernest’s first induction to the foreign world was during World War I when he went to Italy. There was a war on. So Ernest didn’t have a chance to absorb all the cultural aspects of what was going on around him. He did make some friendships that were very important later on his life.
In Italy, he experienced his first taste of freedom, drinking and carousing with his fellow drivers. Hemingway soon grew anxious for action. He wrote a friend, “I’m fed up. There is nothing here but scenery and too damn much of that. I’m going to get out of this ambulance section and see if I can’t find out where the war is.”
He was about to get his chance. On the night of July 8th, 1918, the Italians were being bombarded by the Austrians from across the Piave River.
Hemingway was delivering cigarettes and chocolate rations to Italian soldiers when a deadly mortar explosion hit near where he was standing. One man was killed, and Hemingway’s knee and leg were riddled with shrapnel. He said his life floated out of him like a silk handkerchief being pulled out of a breast pocket.
“I tried to breathe but my breath would not come and I felt myself rush bodily out of myself and out and out and out and all the time bodily in the wind. I went out swiftly, all of myself, and I knew I was dead and that it had all been a mistake to think you just died. Then I floated, and instead of going on I felt myself slide back. I breathed and I was back,” From A Farewell To Arms.
According to legend, Hemingway carried a wounded soldier to safety before he collapsed and lost consciousness. He had only been on the front for six days.
Hemingway’s Wounds and Writing
Hemingway had come close to death and almost had his leg amputated. This experience had a profound impact on his work. His father committed suicide when Hemingway was 29 years-old. Some critics believe that Hemingway’s writing is an attempt to make sense out of the trauma of the wounding. Hemingway was obsessed with death. Death was a theme in much of his work.
Hemingway heroes always struggle with death. A Hemingway hero is often a restless man. Hemingway heroes stay awake at night and sleep during the day. Sleep is an elimination of consciousness. Darkness is the night. The night is like death. A Hemingway hero avoids the dark of night so he doesn’t dream or have to face death in the darkness. Hemingway heroes will leave a light on. Avoiding sleep is avoiding the final sleep of death. This is called the concept of the “nada” or nothingness.
The Hemingway hero alone in the darkness the hero will have to face his demons. The hero wants to escape this by visiting a clean, well-lighted place. Alone, with his nothingness the hero will found that he lived a life unfulfilled. That nothingness is a total denial, a failure to make choices about the trauma that the hero has seen and endured.
Life is emptied of meaning and purpose. The hero’s life, his relationship with God, his relationships with friends and family all don’t matter. All the hero has are monotony, routine and the insomnia of sleepless nights.
Some critics believe that Hemingway’s severe wounding in World War I so traumatized the novelist that his fiction was to a great degree unwitting self-psychoanalysis. Much of Hemingway’s fiction is biography. His writing is both an external and internal passage.
Hemingway falls in love
While recuperating at the Red Cross Hospital in Milan, love found Hemingway. Hemingway was captivated by Agnes Von Kurosky, the volunteer American nurse who inspired his most famous love story.
“She had wonderfully beautiful hair and I would lie sometimes and watch her twisting it up in the light that came in the open door and it shone even in the night as water shines sometimes just before it is really daylight,” from A Farewell To Arms.
The intensity of war heightened his feelings for Agnes, who took a liking to the handsome hero. Hemingway told a friend that it was worth getting wounded so he could meet her. They explored the splendors of Milan together.
During the months of his recuperation, nineteen-year-old Hemingway became increasing enamored with Agnes. Twenty-seven-year-old Agnes was less sure of her love. Agnes’ letters only hinted at a life together.
Hemingway took this as a sure sign that she wanted to marry him. He hoped their relationship would continue even though his time in Italy was coming to an end.
On New Year’s Eve, he was discharged from the Red Cross and returned to America. Hemingway returned to Oak Park, a war hero in 1919. He had ample opportunity to work on his storytelling. With little regard for the truth, he told hometown papers that he was actually a soldier in the Italian Army and that he had been personally decorated for bravery by the King of Italy.
Hemingway became a local celebrity. But after experiencing life, love, and death in Italy, he felt stifled in small town Oak Park. His state of mind grew worse in a letter from Agnes.
“I am writing this late at night after a long think by myself and I am afraid this is going to hurt you. I was trying to convince myself that it was a real love affair, because we always seem to disagree and our arguments always wore me out that I finally gave in to you to keep you from doing something desperate. But I am now and always be too old, and that’s the truth, and I can’t get away from the fact that you are just a boy- a kid,” said Agnes in a letter to Ernest.
Grace was troubled by her son’s lack of direction. She kicked Ernest out of the house in an effort in what she considered to be the right path.
“Unless you, my son Ernest, cease your lazy loafing and trading on your handsome face to fool gullible little girls, and neglecting your duties to God and your Savior, Jesus Christ; unless, you come into your manhood there is nothing before but bankruptcy- you have overdrawn,” wrote Grace.
Belittled by his love and his family, a depressed Hemingway still had to face his future. Hemingway wrote to a friend, “My family, God bless them, are wolfing at me to go to college. Frankly, I don’t know where the hell to go.”
Ernest decided to go to Chicago, and with his background as a newspaperman, he wrote articles for the Toronto Star and worked odd jobs.
At a party, he met Hadley Richardson, who was visiting Chicago from St. Louis. Hadley had lived a sheltered life under a protective mother. At 29, many predicted that she would be a spinster.
She gained confidence from the more worldly Hemingway. And unlike Agnes loved him despite their eight-year age difference. Five visits and nine months later they were married in 1921.
Hemingway was encouraged by author Sherwood Anderson to move to Paris. Anderson gave Hemingway letters of introduction to his literary friends on the Left Bank. Lured by the idea of Paris, Hemingway worked a job as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. In 1922, with Hadley’s trust fund, the couple left for a new life in Europe. Ernest was 23 years old.
That’s a great question. I will try and answer it.
I am a closet Hemingway junkie. His books seem to talk about every part of the human condition- action, sex, lies, deceit, love, lust, bravery and passion. I love them all.
A good book in the hands of an admiring reader is a personal relationship, it’s a love affair. Hemingway gave me ways to think deeply about myself and how I viewed the world, especially war.
In his books, I saw the battlefields of Europe, bullfights in Spain, hunted big game in Africa and fished the palm-fringed paradise of the pristine waters of the Gulf Coast of Cuba. Reading an author you love, you can learn a lot.
This is what I learned from reading Hemingway.
American literature is one of the world’s youngest literary art forms. In many ways, it is an offshoot of English literature, over time it has achieved its own independence and vigor.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the United States produced only a small number of notable writers. In the 19th century, as the country expanded westward and grew, the number increased greatly. By the early 20th century the number of outstanding writers almost became a flood.
Ernest Hemingway may be America’s most famous writer of fiction. His characters and stories made him the most influential writer English prose in the 20th century.
For nearly 40 years he cast a shadow over the American literary scene. His work was imitated, reworked, or assimilated by almost three generations of writers and fans.
The Distinct Hemingway style
Hemingway introduced me to the richness and purpose of spare language. Saying something in simple and succinct prose rather than in an elaborate or, God forbid, boring style.
Hemingway in his prime was de-furnishing, stripping away the English-American writing language of the early 20th Century. He was leaving things out to pull people in. His style soon became the dominant one. We tend to forget that in his time he was an experimental, avant-garde writer.
Hemingway used that style on the oldest American story of them all: the boy who sets out his grand adventure. He made that subject go with his new style of writing. Hemingway is sometimes described as being simple. You will never run to get a dictionary when reading a Hemingway novel.
Hemingway is far from simple. In his writing, he uses pure colors to describe something. The effects are not simple. His simplicity was used to evoke an emotion.
He loved to take sentences and boil them down to their bare bones. His terse, minimalist style of writing stripped away adjectives and, like his heroes got straight to the point.
His clear, simple sentences strike some readers as “hard-boiled” and “tight-lipped.” The opposite is true. His simplicity camouflages deep, hard-to-control passion. A Hemingway scene in short, sharp, with no adjectives text, is a camera “shot” of what the character is doing, seeing, smelling and most important-feeling. Hemingway would describe a scene so you would feel it as if you were really there.
Hemingway the Writer
Hemingway’s public image as a war correspondent, big-game hunter, and deep sea fisherman competes with his own image as a writer. He is a master of the short story.
To Hemingway, every other pursuit, including drinking, fighting, chasing women, took second place to write. He was almost superstitious about writing. That by talking about it might inhibit his muse. Putting together ideas on paper can be a demanding task.
There are suggestions and tricks of the trade that we can learn by looking at his working habits and advice he gives to aspiring writers. Like in most professions, those who can’t, teach. Writing is something I teach well, lol. By looking at Hemingway’s career as a writer, we can learn a little about the craft.
Man of Letters
First and foremost Hemingway is a literary man- a writer who loved to read books. Sometimes that’s forgotten in all the talk about safaris, deep sea fishing tales and war stories.
Most folks think of Hemingway as a romantic soldier-of-fortune wandering from the bars to the bedrooms of beautiful ladies to watching bullfights. He was a very serious writer, with a self-discipline approaching severe.
The Hemingway Hero Code
There is a cult of manhood around Hemingway. He constantly wrote about the “virility” and “manhood” of his protagonists. He uses action as a way of not having to confront the complexities of the human soul. His heroes deal with their problems by acting, not thinking.
He addresses the way a man should act with personal courage and integrity in the face of inevitable defeat. His heroes are sometimes defeated. Yet, they return to battle and certain death.
Shaping of the Man
Two episodes of Hemingway’s life take shape in his writing. First, a German mortar shell wounded him in World War I. The explosion and wound both nearly kill him.
First, he suffered for months a painful and terrible wound to his right leg. His wounded leg was almost amputated.
Second, his father committed suicide when he was 28 years old. Hemingway was close to his dad, who taught him how to hunt and fish.
The two themes play out again and again in his work.
I am writing a biography of Hemingway based on the provoking theory that Hemingway’s severe wounding in World War I, and the suicide of his dad, so traumatized the novelist that his fiction was to a significant degree unwitting self-psychoanalysis.
As a wounded veteran who lost a beloved father at a young age, these are themes I relate too. The passivity of your emotions due to the chaos of war and overwhelming loss are things avoided at all costs in Hemingway’s stories. His work, I believe, is about him resolving these two issues. Writing about him is my way of resolving my own issues.
His heroes run out- shooting something or getting into a fight. It’s the ultimate act of evasion. I just read and write about Hemingway, lol. Okay, time to move on and finish this one out- stay curious and work hard!
Ernest Hemingway was one of the top novelists of his day. His unique “hard-boiled” writing style profoundly influenced generations of writers.
Most readers are familiar with Hemingway. He is almost required reading in most high school English classes. His novels feature stoic heroes facing death. He wrote seven novels and six collections of short stories that have sold millions of copies around the world. His fiction incorporated a level of realism, violence, and sex that was previously unknown. Although by today’s standards, it’s relatively tame.
Like some other successful authors, Hemingway started as a reporter, writing for the Kansas City Star. He left the paper to be an ambulance driver in Italy. On July 8, 1918, just before his nineteenth birthday, he was severely wounded. He endured twelve surgeries to remove hundreds of fragments of a mortar shell in his right leg. His experiences in World War I form the basis of two of his novels The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell To Arms.
Later Hemingway and his first wife Hadley moved to Paris in 1921. Hemingway worked as a foreign correspondent from 1921 to 1924. With the publication of his first novel in 1924, Hemingway became a novelist. He settled in Paris to devote himself to writing.
Hemingway began writing during a time when World War I had just ended and Americans and the world were coping with the aftermath. The Industrial Revolution changed warfare in World War I. Tens of thousands of men were killed in a single day.
WWI was a turning point in history. For the first time technology was used for mass violence on an almost industrial scale. Many veterans, including Hemingway, were changed forever by what they saw and did.
The survivors would later call it the worst catastrophe that the world has ever seen. It gave away a sense of doom that gave birth to “Lost Generation,” the generation that came of age during World War I. The term became popular when Hemingway used it in his novel, The Sun Also Rises.
After World War I, a new sense of social and cultural change gripped America. Hemingway took the gritty, raw approach, creating novels that were brutally honest and direct with readers. Hemingway didn’t mince words when it came to topics like sex, violence, and death. Even though critics were often shocked by what he wrote, the public loved Hemingway’s direct, simple style, short sentences with terse prose. Hemingway was a stylistic break from the flower, descriptive language of American and British novels of the nineteen century.
Hemingway assembled his novels on an old manual Smith Corona typewriter. His novels were short by today’s standards. His simple prose is straightforward in a non-whitewashed style. Hemingway was known for his constant editing and “pruning” of words.
Some of Hemingway’s novels are perceived political incorrectness because he writes about issues like homophobia and racism. His writing is a reflection of the time he lived in. His work highlights the double standard and moral conflict of sex and love prominent in the early 20th century. Frederic Henry in A Farewell To Arms, and Jake Barnes in The Sun Also Rises are both cynical and disillusioned with women. Some criticize Hemingway’s attitude towards women as sadistic and dismissive.
Critics also found fault with Hemingway’s violent, punch-‘em first mentality. His lead men speak in brief sentences and avoid sentiment. They aren’t emotional, and they don’t wallow in self-pity. Most of Hemingway’s heroes are lonely and disillusioned with a restless trigger finger and a need for action.
Hemingway’s heroes foreshadowed the type of tough guy characters played by actors John Wayne and Charles Bronson. The notion of manhood in Hemingway’s novels were defined in the post-World War I era. Many fans see Hemingway’s books as an allegory for life and war.
Hemingway was an author ahead of his time. He had a significant impact on the development of fiction. His terse writing style of simple actions in short, direct sentences paved the way for generations of writers that followed. Other writers after him filled their fiction with sex and violence far beyond anything that Hemingway could have imagined.
The writing is coming along. I am reading two to three books a week. I hope you enjoy these book reviews. They are my attempts to talk about and understand what I read. In high school and college, I trudged through English class, but I never paid attention. I am trying to make up for that now. I am rereading all the books I passed over.
After eighteen years of schooling, I found out I had a deficient vocabulary. I knew to be a good writer I had to steep myself in great writers. I am not just reading for entertainment (although it is great fun!). I am reading to find the key to open the door to make me a better writer.
Good writers are disciplined readers. After I read, I write. I follow a schedule of reading for two hours and writing for two to four hours every day. Writing is a craft. I must be a craftsman who hones that skill every day. There is an adage that to write well, you have to write badly for a long time. I still write badly, but I am trying desperately to get better. Here is how Hemingway started.
“A Moveable Feast” is a memoir by Ernest Hemingway. It was published after he died in 1961.
The book is about Hemingway living in Paris with his first wife Hadley and their young son in the 1920s. “A Moveable Feast” is twenty-eight essays about Hemingway’s life in Paris with the “Lost Generation.” After World War I, Paris became a mecca for American artists and intellectuals.
The book is full of nostalgic detail of what it’s like to be poor, happy and learning the craft of being a writer. Hemingway has daily conversations with literary greats like Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, James Joyce and Ford Madox Ford. All these famous writers forever changed the topography of literature.
“A Moveable Feast” is a “payback” book. Hemingway stabs many dead friends in the back throughout the book. He has no qualms with saying what he really thinks of other artists. Hemingway punishes those who loved him.
Gertrude Stein gave him invaluable support, affection, and advice. She taught him how to revise and rework his stories. Stein was a Jewish lesbian who lived openly with her wife, Alice Toklas. Hemingway goes out of his way to paint Stein as a vindictive woman who looked like a peasant. A cruel picture of a woman he made the godmother of his oldest son.
Hemingway writes nasty things about his dead friend F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald wrote “The Great Gatsby,” a book considered to by many literary critics to be “The Great American Novel.” Fitzgerald edited Hemingway’s manuscripts, encouraged him and got his publisher at Scribner’s to take on the unknown young writer. Hemingway repays Fitzgerald by writing about him as a weak, alcoholic. Hemingway says Fitzgerald was dominated by his wife Zelda, who ruined him.
Hemingway wrote the book when he was a successful and famous writer. He is writing about a young man, who is not yet successful, who was a struggling writer, who is happy and in love with his wife. Hemingway was blown up as an ambulance driver in World War I. Hemingway was a big game hunter in Africa, a deep sea fisherman in Cuba and a war correspondent in World War II.
Hemingway lived with intensity. He did everything at double or triple speed. He prematurely aged. Hemingway went from a movie star handsome young writer to an old man with a white beard in only a few years. In all those adventures he was never as happy as he was in Paris with Hadley learning how to be a writer.
“A Moveable Feast” is a beautiful read and a marvelous fable. Hemingway’s preface to the book states it may be read as fiction if the reader wants to. Hemingway says fiction sometimes sheds light on the truth.
Hemingway reinvents his past with him as the hero. He writes that he and Hadley were penniless. They lived in a squalid room over a sawmill at the rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs. He leaves out the fact that they lived off Hadley’s trust fund.
Hemingway wrote “A Moveable Feast” in the 1950s. Hemingway’s journals from the 1920s provided the material. The final draft of the memoir was written when he was sick. Hemingway was paranoid and at times delusional.
Hemingway reconstructs his youth in Paris from 1921 to 1925. The book centers on his first marriage to Hadley Richardson and his development as a writer. Each of the twenty plus chapters are stand-alone works. The stories are from different periods in Hemingway’s life in Paris. They are not a linear approach to his experiences.
At the end of the memoir, Hemingway has an affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, who becomes his second wife. When Hemingway begins the affair, it marks a new era in his life in Paris. It is the end of the happy period in his life and an end to the book.
The book is written in a simple style. Hemingway talks about the weather, the boulevards and the different places he lived.
“A Moveable Feast” really is about writing. There are great lessons into the insight of Hemingway’s writer’s brain. He understands the fragility of the balance of writing simply with honesty. Hemingway writes about writing and life. The joy of doing it right and the sadness of getting it wrong, both in life and in writing.
Hemingway is a man looking back on the past with sorrow, anger, and regret. Throughout the book, he has the discipline to never mention the present. “A Moveable Feast” is a dazzling portrait of 1920s Paris. It offers firsthand insight into Hemingway’s development as a writer.